Kasumi Misato美里かすみ_ ┬必操胜券┭-如皋科教局
淘宝减肥药排行榜十强
只推淘宝安全有效的减肥药

当前位置:Kasumi Misato美里かすみ > 减肥产品

Kasumi Misato美里かすみ

时间:2020-07-24 04:35  编辑:wendj

EMISSION MEASUREMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER

TEST METHOD

444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————Prepared by Emission Measurement Branch EMTIC TM-201A Technical Support Division, OAQPS, EPA

——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————METHOD 201A - DETERMINATION OF PM EMISSIONS

10(Constant Sampling Rate Procedure)

1. Applicability and Principle

1.1 Applicability. This method applies to the in-stack measurement of

particulate matter (PM) emissions equal to or less than an aerodynamic

diameter of nominally 10 µm (PM ) from stationary sources. The EPA

10recognizes that condensible emissions not collected by an in-stack method are also PM , and that emissions that contribute to ambient PM levels are the 1010sum of condensible emissions and emissions measured by an in-stack PM 10

method, such as this method or Method 201. Therefore, for establishing source contributions to ambient levels of PM , such as for emission inventory

10purposes, EPA suggests that source PM measurement include both in-stack PM 1010and condensible emissions. Condensible emissions may be measured by an

impinger analysis in combination with this method.

1.2 Principle. A gas sample is extracted at a constant flow rate

through an in-stack sizing device, which separates PM greater than PM . 10Variations from isokinetic sampling conditions are maintained within

well-defined limits. The particulate mass is determined gravimetrically after removal of uncombined water.

2. Apparatus NOTE: Methods cited in this method are part of 40 CFR Part 60,

Appendix A.

2.1 Sampling Train. A schematic of the Method 201A sampling train is

shown in Figure 1. With the exception of the PM sizing device and in-stack 10filter, this train is the same as an EPA Method 17 train.

EMISSION MEASUREMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER

TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————Prepared by Emission Measurement Branch EMTIC TM-201A Technical Support Division, OAQPS, EPA ——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

2.1.1 Nozzle. Stainless steel (316 or equivalent) with a sharp tapered leading edge. Eleven nozzles that meet the design specifications in Figure 2 are recommended. A large number of nozzles with small nozzle increments increase the likelihood that a single nozzle can be used for the entire traverse. If the nozzles do not meet the design specifications in Figure 2, then the nozzles must meet the criteria in Section 5.2.

2.1.2 PM Sizer. Stainless steel (316 or equivalent), capable of

10

determining the PM fraction. The sizing device shall be either a cyclone

10

that meets the specifications in Section 5.2 or a cascade impactor that has been calibrated using the procedure in Section 5.4.

2.1.3 Filter Holder. 63-mm, stainless steel. An Andersen filter, part number SE274, has been found to be acceptable for the in-stack filter.

NOTE: Mention of trade names or specific products does not constitute endorsement by the Environmental Protection Agency.

2.1.4 Pitot Tube. Same as in Method 5, Section 2.1.

3. The pitot lines shall be made of heat resistant tubing and attached to the probe with

stainless steel fittings.

2.1.5 Probe Liner. Optional, same as in Method 5, Section 2.1.2.

2.1.6 Differential Pressure Gauge, Condenser, Metering System, Barometer, and Gas Density Determination Equipment. Same as in Method 5, Sections 2.1.4, and 2.1.7 through 2.1.10, respectively.

2.2 Sample Recovery.

2.2.1 Nozzle, Sizing Device, Probe, and Filter Holder Brushes. Nylon bristle brushes with stainless steel wire shafts and handles, properly sized and shaped for cleaning the nozzle, sizing device, probe or probe liner, and filter holders.

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

Figure 2. Nozzle Design Specification

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

2.2.2 Wash Bottles, Glass Sample Storage Containers, Petri Dishes, Graduated Cylinder and Balance, Plastic Storage Containers, Funnel and Rubber Policeman, and Funnel. Same as in Method 5, Sections 2.2.2 through 2.2.8, respectively.

2.3 Analysis. Same as in Method 5, Section 2.

3.

3. Reagents

The reagents for sampling, sample recovery, and analysis are the same as that specified in Method 5, Sections 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3, respectively.

4. Procedure

4.1 Sampling. The complexity of this method is such that, in order to obtain reliable results, testers should be trained and experienced with the test procedures.

4.1.1 Pretest Preparation. Same as in Method 5, Section 4.1.1.

4.1.2 Preliminary Determinations. Same as in Method 5, Section 4.1.2, except use the directions on nozzle size selection and sampling time in this method. Use of any nozzle greater that 0.16 in. in diameter require a

sampling port diameter of 6 inches. Also, the required maximum number of traverse points at any location shall be 12.

4.1.2.1 The sizing device must be in-stack or maintained at stack temperature during sampling. The blockage effect of the CSR sampling assembly will be minimal if the cross-sectional area of the sampling assemble is

3 percent or less of the cross-sectional area of the duct. If the

cross-sectional area of the assembly is greater than 3 percent of the

cross-sectional area of the duct, then either determine the pitot coefficient at sampling conditions or use a standard pitot with a known coefficient in a configuration with the CSR sampling assembly such that flow disturbances are minimized.

4.1.2.2 The setup calculations can be performed by using the following procedures.

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

4.1.2.2.1 In order to maintain a cut size of 10 µm in the sizing

device, the flow rate through the sizing device must be maintained at a constant, discrete value during the run. If the sizing device is a cyclone that meets the design specifications in Figure 3, use the equations in

Figure 4 to calculate three orifice heads ()H): one at the average stack temperature, and the other two at temperatures ±28E C (±50E F) of the average stack temperature. Use the )H calculated at the average stack temperature as the pressure head for the sample flow rate as long as the stack temperature during the run is within 28E C (50E F) of the average stack temperature. If the stack temperature varies by more than 28E C (50E F), then use the

appropriate )H.

4.1.2.2.2 If the sizing device is a cyclone that does not meet the design specifications in Figure 3, use the equations in Figure 4, except use

the procedures in Section 5.3 to determine Q, the correct cyclone flow rate

s

for a 10 µm cut size.

4.1.2.2.3 To select a nozzle, use the equations in Figure 5 to

calculate )p and )p for each nozzle at all three temperatures. If the min max

sizing device is a cyclone that does not meet the design specifications in Figure 3, the example worksheets can be used.

4.1.2.2.4 Correct the Method 2 pitot readings to Method 201A pitot readings by multiplying the Method 2 pitot readings by the square of a ratio

of the Method 201A pitot coefficient to the Method 2 pitot coefficient.

FIGURE 3. CYCLONE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

D

0.10 in.

Cyclone Interior Dimensions

Dimensions (+ 0.02 cm, + 0.01 in.)

cm

inch D in

D De B H h Z s Hcup Dcup D'e Do 1.27 4.47 1.50 1.88 6.95 2.24 4.71 1.57 2.25 4.45 1.02 1.240.50 1.760.590.74 2.740.88 1.850.620.890.49

0.401.75EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD

444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Select the nozzle for which )p and )p bracket all of the corrected

min max

Method 2 pitot readings. If more than one nozzle meets this requirement,

select the nozzle giving the greatest symmetry. Note that if the expected

pitot reading for one or more points is near a limit for a chosen nozzle, it may be outside the limits at the time of the run.

4.1.2.2.5 Vary the dwell time, or sampling time, at each traverse point proportionately with the point velocity. Use the equations in Figure 6 to calculate the dwell time at the first point and at each subsequent point. It is recommended that the number of minutes sampled at each point be rounded to the nearest 15 seconds.

4.1.3 Preparation of Collection Train. Same as in Method 5,

Section 4.1.3, except omit directions about a glass cyclone.

4.1.4 Leak-Check Procedure. The sizing device is removed before the post-test leak-check to prevent any disturbance of the collected sample prior to analysis.

4.1.4.1 Pretest Leak-Check. A pretest leak-check of the entire

sampling train, including the sizing device, is required. Use the leak-check procedure in Method 5, Section 4.1.4.1 to conduct a pretest leak-check.

4.1.4.2 Leak-Checks During Sample Run. Same as in Method 5,

Section 4.1.4.1.

4.1.4.3 Post-Test Leak-Check. A leak-check is required at the

conclusion of each sampling run. Remove the cyclone before the leak-check to prevent the vacuum created by the cooling of the probe from disturbing the collected sample and use the procedure in Method 5, Section 4.1.4.3 to conduct

a post-test leak-check.

4.1.5 Method 201A Train Operation. Same as in Method 5, Section 4.1.5, except use the procedures in this section for isokinetic sampling and flow

rate adjustment. Maintain the flow rate calculated in Section 4.1.2.2.1 throughout the run provided the stack temperature is within 28E C (50E F) of the

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 temperature used to calculate )H. If stack temperatures vary by more than

28E C (50E F), use the appropriate )H value calculated in Section 4.1.2.2.1. Calculate the dwell time at each traverse point as in Figure 6.

4.1.6 Calculation of Percent Isokinetic Rate and Aerodynamic Cut Size

(D). Calculate percent isokinetic rate and D (see Calculations, Section 6)

5050

to determine whether the test was valid or another test run should be made.

If there was difficulty in maintaining isokinetic sampling rates within the

prescribed range, or if the D is not in its proper range because of source

50

conditions, the Administrator may be consulted for possible variance.

4.2 Sample Recovery. If a cascade impactor is used, use the

manufacturer's recommended procedures for sample recovery. If a cyclone is used, use the same sample recovery as that in Method 5, Section 4.2, except an increased number of sample recovery containers is required.

4.2.1 Container Number 1 (In-Stack Filter). The recovery shall be the same as that for Container Number 1 in Method 5, Section 4.2.

4.2.3 Container Number 2 (Cyclone or Large PM Catch). This step is optional. The anisokinetic error for the cyclone PM is theoretically larger

than the error for the PM catch. Therefore, adding all the fractions to get

10

a total PM catch is not as accurate as Method 5 or Method 201. Disassemble

the cyclone and remove the nozzle to recover the large PM catch.

Quantitatively recover the PM from the interior surfaces of the nozzle and cyclone, excluding the "turn around" cup and the interior surfaces of the exit tube. The recovery shall be the same as that for Container Number 2 in

Method 5, Section 4.2.

4.2.4 Container Number 3 (PM). Quantitatively recover the PM from

10

all of the surfaces from the cyclone exit to the front half of the in-stack filter holder, including the "turn around" cup inside the cyclone and the interior surfaces of the exit tube. The recovery shall be the same as that

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 for Container Number 2 in Method 5, Section 4.2.

4.2.6 Container Number 4 (Silica Gel). The recovery shall be the same as that for Container Number 3 in Method 5, Section 4.2.

4.2.7 Impinger Water. Same as in Method 5, Section 4.2, under

"Impinger Water."

4.3 Analysis. Same as in Method 5, Section 4.3, except handle

Method 201A Container Number 1 like Container Number 1, Method 201A Container Numbers 2 and 3 like Container Number 2, and Method 201A Container Number 4

like Container Number 3. Use Figure 7 to record the weights of PM collected. Use Figure 5-3 in Method 5, Section 4.3, to record the volume of water collected.

4.4 Quality Control Procedures. Same as in Method 5, Section 4.4.

5. Calibration

Maintain an accurate laboratory log of all calibrations.

5.1 Probe Nozzle, Pitot Tube, Metering System, Probe Heater

Calibration, Temperature Gauges, Leak-check of Metering System, and Barometer. Same as in Method 5, Section 5.1 through 5.7, respectively.

5.2 Probe Cyclone and Nozzle Combinations. The probe cyclone and

nozzle combinations need not be calibrated if both meet design specifications

in Figures 2 and 3. If the nozzles do not meet design specifications, then

test the cyclone and nozzle combinations for conformity with performance specifications (PS's) in Table 1. If the cyclone does not meet design specifications, then the cyclone and nozzle combination shall conform to the

PS's and calibrate the cyclone to determine the relationship between flow

rate, gas viscosity, and gas density. Use the procedures in Section 5.2 to conduct PS tests and the procedures in Section 5.3 to calibrate the cyclone. The purpose of the PS tests are to confirm that the cyclone and nozzle combination has the desired sharpness of cut. Conduct the PS tests in a wind

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 tunnel described in Section 5.2.1 and particle generation system described in Section 5.2.2. Use five particle sizes and three wind velocities as listed in Table 2. A minimum of three replicate measurements of collection efficiency shall be performed for each of the 15 conditions listed, for a minimum of 45 measurements.

5.2.1 Wind Tunnel. Perform the calibration and PS tests in a wind tunnel (or equivalent test apparatus) capable of establishing and maintaining the required gas stream velocities within 10 percent.

5.2.2 Particle Generation System. The particle generation system shall be capable of producing solid monodispersed dye particles with the mass median aerodynamic diameters specified in Table 2. Perform the particle size distribution verification on an integrated sample obtained during the sampling period of each test. An acceptable alternative is to verify the size distribution of samples obtained before and after each test, with both samples required to meet the diameter and monodispersity requirements for an

acceptable test run.

5.2.2.1 Establish the size of the solid dye particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel by using the operating parameters of the particle generation system, and verify them during the tests by microscopic examination of samples of the particles collected on a membrane filter. The particle size, as established by the operating parameters of the generation system, shall be within the tolerance specified in Table 2. The precision of the particle size verification technique shall be at least ±0.5 µm, and

particle size determined by the verification technique shall not differ by more than 10 percent from that established by the operating parameters of the particle generation system.

5.2.2.2. Certify the monodispersity of the particles for each test

either by microscopic inspection of collected particles on filters or by other suitable monitoring techniques such as an optical particle counter followed by

E c '

M

c

(m

c

%m

c

%m

f

)

X100

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 a multichannel pulse height analyzer. If the proportion of multiplets and

satellites in an aerosol; exceeds 10 percent by mass, the particle generation system is unacceptable for the purpose of this test. Multiplets are particles that are agglomerated, and satellites are particles that are smaller than the specified size range.

5.2.3 Schematic Drawings. Schematic drawings of the wind tunnel and blower system and other information showing complete procedural details of the test atmosphere generation, verification, and delivery techniques shall be furnished with calibration data to the reviewing agency.

5.2.4 Flow Measurements. Measure the cyclone air flow rates with a dry gas meter and a stopwatch, or a calibrated orifice system capable of measuring flow rates to within 2 percent.

5.2.5 Performance Specification Procedure. Establish test particle generator operation and verify particle size microscopically. If

monodispersity is to be verified by measurements at the beginning and the end of the run rather than by an integrated sample, these measurements may be made at this time.

5.2.5.1 The cyclone cut size, or D, of a cyclone is defined here as

50

the particle size having a 50 percent probability of penetration. Determine

the cyclone flow rate at which D is 10 µm. A suggested procedure is to vary

50

the cyclone flow rate while keeping a constant particle size of 10 µm.

Measure the PM collected in the cyclone (m), the exit tube (m), and the

c t

filter (m). Calculate cyclone efficiency (E) for each flow rate as follows:

f c

5.2.5.2 Do three replicates and calculate the average cyclone

efficiency [E] as follows:

c(avg)

E c(avg)'(E 1%E 2%E 3)/3

F

E o '(m n %m c )

(m n %m c %m t %m f )X 100

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD

444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

where E , E , and E are replicate measurements of E .

123c 5.2.5.3 Calculate the standard deviation (F ) for the replicate

measurements of E as follows:

c If F exceeds 0.10, repeat the replicate

d runs.

5.2.5.4 Measure the overall efficiency of the cyclone and nozzle, E ,

o at the particle sizes and nominal gas velocities in Table 2 using the

following procedure.

5.2.5.5 Set the air velocity and particle size from one of the

conditions in Table 2. Establish isokinetic sampling conditions and the

correct flow rate in the cyclone (obtained by procedures in this section) such that the D is 10 µm. Sample long enough to obtain ±5 percent precision on 50total collected mass as determined by the precision and the sensitivity of measuring technique. Determine separately the nozzle catch (m ), cyclone n catch (m ), cyclone exit tube (M ), and collection filter catch (m ) for each c t f particle size and nominal gas velocity in Table 2. Calculate overall

efficiency (E ) as follows:

o

E

o(avg)'(E

1

%E

2

%E

3

)/3

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

5.2.5.6 Do three replicates for each combination of gas velocity and

particle size in Table 2. Use the equation below to calculate the average

overall efficiency [E] for each combination following the procedures

o(avg)

described in this section for determining efficiency.

where E, E, and E are replicate measurements of E.

123o

5.2.5.7 Use the formula in Section 5.2.5.3 to calculate F for the replicate measurements. If F exceeds 0.10 or if the particle sizes and

nominal gas velocities are not within the limits specified in Table 2, repeat the replicate runs.

5.2.6 Criteria for Acceptance. For each of the three gas stream

velocities, plot the E as a function of particle size on Figure 8. Draw

o(avg)

smooth curves through all particle sizes. E shall be within the banded

o(avg)

region for all sizes, and the E shall be 50 ± 0.5 percent at 10 µm.

c(avg)

5.3 Cyclone Calibration Procedure. The purpose of this procedure is to develop the relationship between flow rate, gas viscosity, gas density, and

D.

50

5.3.1 Calculate Cyclone Flow Rate. Determine flow rates and D's for

50

three different particle sizes between 5 µm and 15 µm, one of which shall be 10 µm. All sizes must be determined within 0.5 µm. For each size, use a different temperature within 60E C (108E F) of the temperature at which the cyclone is to be used and conduct triplicate runs. A suggested procedure is

to keep the particle size constant and vary the flow rate.

5.3.1.1 On log-log graph paper, plot the Reynolds number (Re) on the

abscissa, and the square root of the Stokes 50 number [(Stk)] on the

50

½

ordinate for each temperature. Use the following equations to compute both values:

Re'

4D Q

cyc d

cyc

s

Q

s

'

s

4

[(3000)(K

1

)&b]&(0.5&

m)

m

m&0.5d

m&1.5

m&0.5

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

where:

Q = Cyclone flow rate, cm/sec.

cyc

3

D = Gas density, g/cm.3

d = Diameter of cyclon

e inlet, cm.

cyc

µ = Viscosity of gas through the cyclone, micropoise.

cyc

D =Aerodynamic diameter of a particle having a 50 percent

50

probability of penetration, cm.

5.3.1.2 Use a linear regression analysis to determine the slope (m) and the Y-intercept (b). Use the following formula to determine Q, the cyclone flow rate required for a cut size of 10 µm.

where:

m = Slope of the calibration line.

b = y-intercept of the calibration line.

Q = Cyclone flow rate for a cut size of 10 µm, cm/sec.

s

3

d = Diameter of nozzle, cm.

T = Stack gas temperature, E R.

s

P = Absolute stack pressure, in. Hg.

s

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 M = Molecular weight of the stack gas, lb/lb-mole.

c

K = 4.077 x 10.

-3

1

5.3.1.3 Refer to the Method 201A operators manual, entitled Application

Guide for Source PM Measurement with Constant Sampling Rate, for directions

10

in the use of this equation for Q in the setup calculations.

5.4 Cascade Impactor. The purpose of calibrating a cascade impactor is

to determine the empirical constant (Stk), which is specific to the impactor

50

and which permits the accurate determination of the cut sizes of the impactor stages at field conditions. It is not necessary to calibrate each individual impactor. Once an impactor has been calibrated, the calibration data can be applied to other impactors of identical design.

5.4.1 Wind Tunnel. Same as in Section 5.2.1.

5.4.2 Particle Generation System. Same as in Section 5.2.2.

5.4.3 Hardware Configuration for Calibrations. An impaction stage constrains an aerosol to form circular or rectangular jets, which are directed toward a suitable substrate where the larger aerosol particles are collected. For calibration purposes, three stages of the cascade impactor shall be discussed and designated calibration stages 1, 2, and 3. The first

calibration stage consists of the collection substrate of an impaction stage and all upstream surfaces up to and including the nozzle. This may include other preceding impactor stages. The second and third calibration stages consist of each respective collection substrate and all upstream surfaces up

to but excluding the collection substrate of the preceding calibration stage. This may include intervening impactor stages which are not designated as

calibration stages. The cut size, or D, of the adjacent calibration stages

50

shall differ by a factor of not less than 1.5 and not more than 2.0. For

example, if the first calibration stage has a D of 12 µm, then the D of the

5050 downstream stage shall be between 6 and 8 µm.

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

5.4.3.1 It is expected, but not necessary, that the complete hardware

assembly will be used in each of the sampling runs of the calibration and performance determinations. Only the first calibration stage must be tested under isokinetic sampling conditions. The second and third calibration stages must be calibrated with the collection substrate of the preceding calibration stage in place, so that gas flow patterns existing in field operation will be simulated.

5.4.3.2 Each of the PM stages should be calibrated with the type of

10

collection substrate, viscid material (such as grease) or glass fiber, used in

PM measurements. Note that most materials used as substrates at elevated 10

temperatures are not viscid at normal laboratory conditions. The substrate material used for calibrations should minimize particle bounce, yet be viscous enough to withstand erosion or deformation by the impactor jets and not

interfere with the procedure for measuring the collected PM.

5.4.4 Calibration Procedure. Establish test particle generator

operation and verify particle size microscopically. If monodispersity is to be verified by measurements at the beginning and the end of the run rather

than by an integrated sample, these measurements shall be made at this time. Measure in triplicate the PM collected by the calibration stage (m) and the PM on all surfaces downstream of the respective calibration stage (m') for all of the flow rates and particle size combinations shown in Table 2. Techniques of mass measurement may include the use of a dye and spectrophotometer.

Particles on the upstream side of a jet plate shall be included with the substrate downstream, except agglomerates of particles, which shall be

included with the preceding or upstream substrate. Use the following formula to calculate the collection efficiency (E) for each stage.

5.4.4.1 Use the formula in Section 5.2.5.3 to calculate the standard deviation (F) for the replicate measurements. If F exceeds 0.10, repeat the replicate runs.

STK'

D2Q 9µA d

j

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

5.4.4.2 Use the following formula to calculate the average collection

efficiency (E) for each set of replicate measurements.

avg

E = (E + E + E)/3

avg123

where E, E, and E are replicate measurements of E.

123

5.4.4.3 Use the following formula to calculate Stk for each E.

avg

D = Aerodynamic diameter of the test particle, cm (g/cm).

Q = Gas flow rate through the calibration stage at inlet conditions, cm/sec.

3

µ = Gas viscosity, micropoise.

A = Total cross-sectional area of the jets of the calibration stage,

cm.2

d = Diameter of on

e jet o

f the calibration stage, cm.

j

5.4.4.4 Determine Stk for each calibration stage by plotting E

50avg

versus Stk on log-log paper. Stk is the Stk number at 50 percent

50

efficiency. Note that particle bounce can cause efficiency to decrease at

high values of Stk. Thus, 50 percent efficiency can occur at multiple values

of Stk. The calibration data should clearly indicate the value of Stk for

50 minimum particle bounce. Impactor efficiency versus Stk with minimal particle bounce is characterized by a monotonically increasing function with constant

or increasing slope with increasing Stk.

5.4.4.5 The Stk of the first calibration stage can potentially

50

decrease with decreasing nozzle size. Therefore, calibrations should be performed with enough nozzle sizes to provide a measured value within

25 percent of any nozzle size used in PM measurements.

10

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

5.4.5 Criteria For Acceptance. Plot E for the first calibration

avg

stage versus the square root of the ratio of Stk to Stk on Figure 9. Draw a

50

smooth curve through all of the points. The curve shall be within the banded region.

6. Calculations

6.1 Nomenclature.

B = Moisture fraction of stack, by volume, dimensionless.

ws

C = Viscosity constant, 51.12 micropoise for E K (51.05 micropoise

1

for E R).

C = Viscosity constant, 0.372 micropoise/E K (0.207 micropoise/E R).

2

C = Viscosity constant, 1.05 x 10 micropoise/E K

-42

3

(3.24 x 10 micropoise/E R).

-52

C = Viscosity constant, 53.147 micropoise/fraction O.

42

C = Viscosity constant, 74.143 micropoise/fraction H O.

52

D = Diameter of particles having a 50 percent probability of

50

penetration, µm.

f = Stack gas fraction O, by volume, dry basis.

O2

K = 0.3858 E K/mm Hg (17.64 E R/in. Hg).

1

M = Wet molecular weight of mixed gas through the PM cyclone, c10

g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).

M = Dry molecular weight of stack gas, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).

d

P = Barometric pressure at sampling site, mm Hg (in. Hg).

bar

P = Absolute stack pressure, mm Hg (in. Hg).

s

Q = Total cyclone flow rate at wet cyclone conditions, m/min

3

s

(ft/min).

3

Q = Total cyclone flow rate at standard conditions, dscm/min s(std)

(dscf/min).

T = Average absolute temperature of dry meter, E K (E R).

m

T = Average absolute stack gas temperature, E K (E R).

s

µcyc 'C

1

%C

2

T

s

%C

3

T2

s

%C

4

f

02

&C

5

B

ws

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 V = Volume of water vapor in gas sample (standard conditions), w(std)

scm (scf).

2 = Total sampling time, min.

µ = Viscosity of mixed cyclone gas, micropoise.

cyc

µ = Viscosity of standard air, 180.1 micropoise.

std

6.2 Analysis of Cascade Impactor Data. Use the manufacturer's recommended procedures to analyze data from cascade impactors.

6.3 Analysis of Cyclone Data. Use the following procedures to analyze data from a single stage cyclone.

6.3.1 PM Weight. Determine the PM catch in the PM range from the

1010

sum of the weights obtained from Container Numbers 1 and 3 less the acetone blank.

6.3.2 Total PM Weight (optional). Determine the PM catch for greater

than PM from the weight obtained from Container Number 2 less the acetone 10

blank, and add it to the PM weight.

10

6.3.3 PM Fraction. Determine the PM fraction of the total

1010

particulate weight by dividing the PM particulate weight by the total

10

particulate weight.

6.3.4 Aerodynamic Cut Size. Calculate the stack gas viscosity as follows:

6.3.4.1 The PM flow rate, at actual cyclone conditions, is calculated

10

as follows:

Q

s '

T

s

K

1

P

s

s(std)

%

M

w 'M

d

(1&B

ws

)%18.0(B

ws

)

D

50'$

0.7091

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

6.3.4.2 Calculate the molecular weight on a wet basis of the stack gas as follows:

6.3.4.3 Calculate the actual D of the cyclone for the given

50

conditions as follows:

where ß = 0.027754 for metric units (0.15625 for English units).

1

6.3.5 Acceptable Results. The results are acceptable if two conditions

are met. The first is that 9.0 µm < D < 11.0 µm. The second is that no

50

sampling points are outside )p and )p, or that 80 percent < I < 120

min max

percent and no more than one sampling point is outside )p and )p. If D

min max50

is less than 9.0 µm, reject the results and repeat the test.

7. Bibliography

1. Same as Bibliography in Method 5.

2. McCain, J.D., J.W. Ragland, and A.D. Williamson. Recommended Methodology for the Determination of Particle Size Distributions in Ducted Sources, Final Report. Prepared for the California Air Resources Board by Southern Research Institute. May 1986.

3. Farthing, W.E., S.S. Dawes, A.D. Williamson, J.D. McCain, R.S.

Martin, and J.W. Ragland. Development of Sampling Methods for Source PM

10 Emissions. Southern Research Institute for the Environmental Protection

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Agency. April 1989. NTIS PB 89 190375, EPA/600/3-88-056.

4. Application Guide for Source PM Measurement with Constant Sampling

10

Rate, EPA/600/3-88-057.

P s 'P

bar

%

P

g

13.6

'&&&&&&&&&&in.Hg

µs '152.418%0.2552t

s

% 3.2355x10&5t2s%0.53147(%0

2

)&74.143B

ws

Q

s

'0.002837µ

s

0.2949

'___ft3/min.

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

Barometric pressure, P, in. Hg = ______________

bar

Stack static pressure, P, in. H O = ______________

g2

Average stack temperature, t, E F = ______________

s

Meter temperature, t, E F = ______________

m

Orifice )H, in. H O = ______________

@2

Gas analysis:

%CO =

2

%O =

2

%N + %CO =

2

Fraction moisture content, B =

ws

Molecular weight of stack gas, dry basis:

M = 0.44 (%CO) + 0.32 (%O) + 0.28 (%N + %CO) = lb/lb mole d222

Molecular weight of stack gas, wet basis:

M = M (1-B) + 18 (B) = lb/lb mole

w d ws ws

Absolute stack pressure:

Viscosity of stack gas:

= ____ micropoise Cyclone flow rate:

Figure 4. Example Worksheet 1 (Page 1 of 2), Cyclone Flow Rate and )H.

)H

'

2(t

m

%460)M

d

(1.083))H M

P

bar

-&&&&&&&&&&&in.H

2

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Orifice pressure head ()H) needed for cyclone flow rate:

Calculate )H for three temperatures:

t, E F

s

)H, in. H O

2

Figure 4. Example Worksheet 1 (Page 2 of 2), Cyclone Flow Rate and )H.

R min '0.2457%

'___

R max '0.4457%

'___

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

Stack viscosity, µ, micropoise =

s

Absolute stack pressure, P, in. Hg =

s

Average stack temperature, t, E F =

s

Meter temperature, t, E F =

m

Method 201A pitot coefficient, C =

p

Cyclone flow rate, ft/min, Q =

3

s

Method 2 pitot coefficient, C' =

p

Molecular weight of stack gas, wet basis, M =

w

Nozzle diameter, D, in. =

n

Nozzle velocity

3.056 Q

s

v = ————————— = ft/sec

n

D

n

2

Maximum and minimum velocities:

Calculate R.

min

If R is less than 0.5, or if an imaginary number occurs when calculating min

R, use Equation 1 to calculate v. Otherwise, use Equation 2.

min min

Eq. 1 v = v (0.5) = ____ ft/sec

min n

Eq. 2 v = v R = ____ ft/sec

min n min

Calculate R.

max

Figure 5. Example Worksheet 2 (Page 1 of 2), Nozzle Selection.

)p

min 1.3686x10&4

P

s

M

w

(V

min

)2

(t

s

%460)C2

p

'-&&&&&&&&&&&&&in.H

2

O

)p

max ' 1.3686x10&4

P

s

M

w

(V

max

)2

(t

s

%460)C2

p

&&&&&&&&&&&&&in.H

2

0 )p(Method201A)')

p(Method2)

2

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 If R is greater than 1.5, use Equation 3 to calculate v. Otherwise, use max max

Equation 4.

Eq. 3 v = v (1.5) = ____ ft/sec

max n

Eq. 4 v = v R = ____ ft/sec

max n max

Maximum and minimum velocity head values:

Nozzle No.

D in.

n1

V ft/sec

n1

V ft/sec

min1

V ft/sec

max1

) p in H20

min1

) p in H20

max1

Velocity traverse data:

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Figure 5. Example Worksheet 2 (Page 2 of 2), Nozzle Selection.

t 1

'

1/2

(Total run time)

(Number of points)

t n '

n'2,3,...total number of sampling points

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Total run time, minutes =

Number of traverse points =

where:

t =dwell time at first traverse point, minutes.

1

)p' =the velocity head at the first traverse point (from a previous 1

traverse), in. H O.

2

)p' =the square of the average square root of the )p's (from a avg

previous velocity traverse), in. H O.

2

At subsequent traverse points, measure the velocity )p and calculate the dwell time by using the following equation:

where:

t = dwell time at traverse point n, minutes.

n

)p = measured velocity head at point n, in. H O.

n2

)p = measured velocity head at point 1, in. H O.

12

Figure 6. Example Worksheet 3 (Page 1 of 2), Dwell Time.

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

Port

Point No.)p t)p t)p t)p t 1

2

3

4

5

6

Figure 6. Example Worksheet 3 (Page 2 of 2), Dwell Time.

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 Plant

Date

Run number

Filter number

Amount of liquid lost during transport

Acetone blank volume, ml

Acetone wash volume, ml (4) (5)

Acetone blank conc., mg/mg (Equation 5-4, Method 5)

Acetone wash blank, mg (Equation 5-5, Method 5)

Weight of PM (mg)

10

Container No.Final Tare Weight

Weight Weight Gain

1

2

Total

Less Acetone Blank

Weight of PM

10

Figure 7. Method 201A analysis sheet

FIGURE 8. EFFICIENCY ENVELOPE FOR THE PM-10 CYCLONE

AERODYNAMIC DIAMETER (um)

95

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

5

12468102040EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD

444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

EMTIC TM-201A EMTIC TEST METHOD 444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 TABLE 1. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR SOURCE PM CYCLONES

10

AND NOZZLE COMBINATIONS

Parameter Units Specification

1. Collection Percent Such that collection

Efficiency efficiency falls within

envelope specified by

Section 5.2.6 and

Figure 8.

2. Cyclone Cut Size µm10±1 mm aerodynamic

(D)diameter.

50

TABLE 2. PARTICLE SIZES AND NOMINAL GAS VELOCITIES FOR EFFICIENCY

Target Gas Velocities (m/sec) Particle Size7±1.015±1.525±2.5 (mm)(a)

5±0.5

7±0.5

10±0.5

14±1.0

20±1.0

Mass median aerodynamic diameter.

(a)

猜你喜欢

最安全有效的减肥药

最安全有效的减肥药

编辑:小徐

现在的减肥药真的是真假难分,在选择减肥药的同时也应该更加小心,减肥药多种多样,那么如何才能选择最安全有效的减肥药,也成了很多小仙女的内心疑问,下面就跟着Kasumi Misato美里かすみ小编一起看一下,如何选择最安全有效的减肥药。 最安全有效的减肥药选购方法 1、首先需要观察产品的外包装,在包装中可以看到其配方是不是含有激素,含有激素的减肥药对身体的内..

吃减肥药失眠

吃减肥药失眠

编辑:小徐

随着现在流行以瘦为美,很多人会不顾身体的健康选择减肥药,达到快速减肥瘦身的效果,但是很多减肥药都是有副作用的,副作用比较轻的就是失眠现象,那么吃减肥药出现失眠是怎么回事儿?如果出现失眠后,我们应该怎样缓解? 吃减肥药失眠是怎么回事 减肥药中富含安非他命,所以减肥药服用了太多会有失眠现象,服用减肥药期间,身体会逐渐出现抗药性,身..

最新文章